"What is the best filter to purify my water?"
There is no "one size fits all" water filter. Furthermore; "pure" water is itself a misnomer. Water is a solvent, therefore it wants to absorb / dissolve anything / surface it comes in contact with. if you dig deep enough, there is always something contained in water other than hydrogen & oxygen. The closest we can come (practically speaking) to "pure" water is water treated by reverse osmosis or distillation. The filtration of water can take on many forms. Not the least of which is a standard pleated or poly spun sediment filter for basic particulate filtration. Bottom line; you need to know what you want removed from the water. Once a contaminant(s) has been identified - the options can then be presented. If you feel you have "good" or "great" water already, adding a carbon filter or RO can always be a beneficial "polisher" to an already good water supply.
"What's a good pH level for my drinking water?"
pH is a measure of acidity...more specifically - potential hydrogen. The scale for pH ranges from "0 - 14". 7.0 is neutral or "basic"...anything over "7" is alkaline reaction...anything under "7" is acidic in reaction. The pH scale is exponential in that; a pH of "6" is "10" times more acidic than a pH of "7"...a pH of "5" is 100 times more acidic than a pH of "7". As a practical matter, "7" or neutral pH is the desired range for drinking water. However; some treatment scenarios require a more alkaline or acidic number depending on the treatment process or contaminant to be removed.
"How do you get rid of a smell in my well water?"
Like so many other issues we face in the water treatment business, "it depends" is the fairest answer we can give. Odors can have many different origins and therefore; different treatment solutions. Most common treatment options are carbon filtration and aeration. More stubborn odors may need some form of oxidation treatment.
"What is the approximate cost for a radon in air removal system?"
Most radon in air problems can be mitigated in a price range between $1,000 - $1,600. Of course there are always exceptions & unique circumstances that can impact the final cost. This is why we make it a point to visit the site to give an accurate cost assessment.
"What is the limit for a radon level in the air?"
The EPA has established an "action level" for airborne radon of 4.0 pCi/l of air. Action level meaning; "take action" to reduce radon levels if they exceed 4.0 pCi/l. The 4.0 number was chosen because it is technologically feasible to achieve in the vast majority of dwellings. It is not a "safe level"! EPA also states "consider fixing" between 2.0 - 4.0 pCi/l. The World Health Organization has recommended 2.7 pCi/l as a global action level.
"When I drink my water and there’s radon in it, what is that doing to my stomach/throat?"
There is thought to be a small increased risk of internal cancers from ingesting water with an elevated radon content. The primary concern with radon exposure is from inhalation. Radon is "water phobic" and readily escapes from water and becomes airborne whenever water is agitated or aerated. Therefore, the bigger concern lies in the off gas from water into the air during water usage within the home.
"What is a dangerous level for radon in the water?"
The EPA has a proposed radon in water action level of 300 pCi/l of water for municipal supplies. This proposal is packaged with an "alternative maximum contaminant level" of 4,000 pCi/l. While confusing; in short: Communities that have an active airborne radon monitoring / mitigation program in place can adopt the higher 4,000 pCi/l. The State of CT recommends taking action if your waterborne radon levels exceed 5,000 pCi/l. NY has no published guideline, RI is 5,000 pCi/l, MA is 10,000 pCi/l.
"What solutions are available to remove uranium from well water?"
The perceived risk associated with uranium in water is from ingestion. As such; the most practical solution would be point of use (POU) treatment. Reverse osmosis is the most effective point of use treatment available. Reverse osmosis is a process whereby water is "squeezed" through a semi - permeable membrane. It is the highest level of filtration. Depending on the lay out of your home, we may also be able to connect the ice maker in your refrigerator to the system. If treated water is desired at all points of use throughout the home (point of entry or POE treatment); whole house reverse osmosis would be an option.
An alternate POE treatment is anion exchange. This system functions much like a standard water softener. While anion exchange is very effective; the State of CT views this treatment as a "non compliant" technology. Their rationale is that when the system regenerates; you are discharging a known contaminant that exceeds potable water standards back into the ground. The paradox here is the fact that if you have uranium in your water, the water coming out of your tap & going down the drain has a contaminant in it that exceeds potable water standards!
"What is a pico curie?"
Curies are units of radioactivity named after Madame Curie who first discovered radium & polonium. Specifically; one curie is the equivalent of 2.22 disintegrations per minute in a liter volume. It is the activity given off from one gram of radium. "Pico" (pronounced pee - ko) is a trillionth. 4 pCi/l = 4 trillionths of a Curie per liter.
"What does radon do?"
Radon is a "class 1" carcinogen, which means that a definitive link has been established between exposure to radon and an increased incidence of lung cancer in the general population. Radon gas itself is not the actual problem. It is the decay products (polonium 218 & polonium 214) from radon that can become lodged in lung tissue. As these products decay, they emanate alpha particles which can damage cells that can eventually lead to lung cancer.
"Does radon cause other health problems or symptoms?"
Any associated risk with radon exposure is linked to an increased incidence of lung cancer.
"How does radon get into my house?"
Radon is inert & therefore migrates through the soil uninhibited. Because it is heavier than air, it requires a driving mechanism to enter a home. Pressure differentials between the interior and exterior of homes is the greatest driving force. Weather patterns have a significant influence on these pressure differentials. This is most evident in the winter time. With cold outside temperatures and wind and snow cover; the heated air within the home rises. As this happens, the envelope of the structure creates a vacuum on the ground on which it sits. This increased vacuum draws in soil gas which oftentimes contains radon.
Homes with water wells have a secondary radon entry concern. As water travels through the rock strata and comes in contact with radium bearing sources, radon will dissolve into it. As water is utilized in the house via showering, laundering etc., radon readily off gasses from the water and becomes airborne...and therefore - inhalable.
"How does a water softener soften water?"
Water softeners soften water by the process of "ion exchange". A negatively charged polymer resin is packed in a tank. This resin is impregnated with sodium ions. When hard water runs through this resin bed, the hardness ions (calcium & magnesium) are drawn onto the resin beads. As a result; these newly attracted ions dislodge the sodium ions...hence "ion exchange" takes place. Eventually, all the sites on the resin bed will be occupied and the resin will need to be regenerated. This is done automatically with a brine solution...& once completed, the resin is renewed and able to remove more hardness.
"How can I protect my well from bacteria?"
Aside from ensuring that you have a water tight well cap that is in good condition, and that any exposed well casing is in good shape, there isn't much you can do to protect your well from bacteria. However; you can install an ultra violet light system to ensure the water coming out of the taps will be bacteria free. This can be thought of as an insurance policy against bacteria ever becoming an issue.
"What's the best way to remove iron from water?"
There is not one "best" way to remove iron from water. There are many factors that can influence a treatment approach. It is for this reason that we recommend you have a complete updated potability analysis available to allow for the most comprehensive approach to be formulated. It can be as simple as a sediment filter to as complex as a chlorination / filtration system. We customize each treatment scheme to best fit your needs and budget.